Thursday, January 16, 2020

For small businesses, does the reality of using social and new media in marketing live up to the promise? A qualitative study amongst business owners in the UK

Abstract The area of emerging technology and marketing has become an topic of increased debate as the potential to reach more consumers and provide real savings for small business is created. This study assesses the impact that emerging communication technology has had on the marketing efforts of small businesses in the UK. 1 Introduction1.1 Research TopicThis study assesses the impact that emerging communication technology has on the marketing efforts of small businesses in the UK. In order to properly evaluate each element, this study uses a survey given to several owners and operators in the UK coupled with a case study centred on the small business in the London area to provide evidence for industry and cultural assessment. These factors will be used to illustrate detailed components of operation and implementation for small businesses in the UK. With a focus for identifying distinct themes in the survey results, this research seeks to combine working experience with social expectation to provide an illustration of potential opportunity.1.2 Objectives1) Assess technological impact on small business 2) Evaluate how communication technology provides opportunities for growth.1.3 Research questions1) What are the challenges faced by small business in marketing? 2) Can improved consumer outreach improve revenue? 3) Does new technology offer a competitive edge for small business? 2 Review of Literature2.1 Small Business ChallengesMarketing is an essential element of small business strategy (Safko et al, 2009). With a clear need to remain in the consumer eye, marketing has the potential to make or break any small business (Qualman, 2009).2.1.1 Current MethodsCurrent methods of marketing include television, print and word of mouth (Qualman, 2008). Further, any advertising must be local or regional, facing increased cost (Safko et al, 2009).2.1.2. Emerging methodsInternet and communication technology provide social media, online content and increased consumer exposure for small businesses(Berthon et al, 2012; Fischer et al, 2011;Weinberg et al, 2011). Networking and comprehensive data bases encourage consumers to look deeply into a small business, providing ample opportunity for revenue growth.2.2 Small business Competitive Strategy and opportunities for growthUsing technology to reach consumers, aids outreach as well as provides a new and growing market for any business (Baird et al, 2011).2.3 Spending and Consumer OutreachModern methods of marketing require crucial funds that could otherwise to other areas of a small business strategy (Wienberg et al, 2011). This increased leeway provides opportunity for reinvestment in the infrastructure.2.4 Working TheoryUsing a thematic survey approach provides critical evidence to any working research (Perri et al, 2012). Combined with an assessment of the case study using Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, establishes the likelihood of adoption and implementation (Hofstede et al, 2010). 3 Methodology3.1 ApproachThis study is best approach with the Qualitative, Interpretivism process (Perri, 2012). Initial evidence will be provided using a survey given to between 100-150 respondents creating data that will be assessed using a thematic, coding approach (Perri, 2012). Case study is based on the small business sector in London, UK which provides government facts and official figure (Perri, 2012). The evidence is combined and evaluated using the thematic coding to identify themes in the material followed by a Hofstede analysis to provide useable examples of impact and improvement.3.2 Research StrategyQualitative research based on surveys and case study (Perri, 2012).3.3 Data Collection Instruments and MethodsSurvey and questionnaire coupled with a modern case study taken from online databases, official sites, journals and books. 4 Analysis4.1 Case Study of Small Business in London, UK 2010-20144.1.1 Thematic analysis of surveysIdentifying themes that relate to the positive or negative experience of technology use in marketing (Perri, 2012).4.1.2. Hofstede’s Cultural dimensions evaluation of case study and surveysProvides a working cultural understanding as to why or why not small business owners are embracing new technology opportunities (Hofstede et al, 2010).4.2 Discussion5 Conclusion and Recommendations5.1 Conclusion5.2 Recommendation6 References Baird, C. and Parasnis, G. (2011). From social media to social customer relationship management. Strategy & Leadership, 39(5), pp.30–37. Berthon, P., Pitt, L., Plangger, K. and Shapiro, D. (2012). Marketing meets Web 2.0, social media, and creative consumers: Implications for international marketing strategy. Business Horizons, 55(3), pp.261–271. Evans, D. (2008). Social media marketing. 1st ed. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley. Fischer, E. and Reuber, A. (2011). Social interaction via new social media:(How) can interactions on Twitter affect effectual thinking and behavior?. Journal of business venturing, 26(1), pp.1–18. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N. and Christodoulides, G. (2011). Usage, barriers and measurement of social media marketing: An exploratory investigation of small and medium B2B brands.Industrial Marketing Management, 40(7), pp.1153–1159. Qualman, E. (2009). Socialnomics. 1st ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. Safko, L. and Brake, D. (2009). The social media bible. 1st ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Weinberg, B. and Pehlivan, E. (2011). Social spending: Managing the social media mix. Business Horizons, 54(3), pp.275–282. Weinberg, T. (2009). The new community rules. 1st ed. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

All About the Regular French Verb Laisser (Leave)

Laisser  (to leave, to lose) is a regular -er verb that shares conjugation patterns in all tenses and moods with every other regular French verb ending in -er,  by far the largest group of French verbs.  Laisser is commonly used as a semi-auxiliary verb as well as a pronominal verb. Meaning No. 1: to Leave Laisser is a transitive verb  that takes a direct object  and means to leave something or someone.   Peux-tu me laisser de largent  ?   Could you leave me some money?  Je vais laisser la porte ouverte.   Im going to leave the door open.  Cela me laisse perplexe.   That leaves me perplexed.  Au revoir, je te laisse.   Good-bye, Im going/leaving.  Laisse, je vais le faire.   Leave it, Ill do it. Laisser is one of five verbs in French that mean to leave, and English speakers tend to confuse them. These are the essential differences: Laisser  means to leave something.Partir  is the most straightforward and simply means to leave in a general sense.Sen aller  is more or less interchangeable with  partir,  but it has the slightly informal nuance of going away.Sortir  means to go out.Quitter  means to leave someone or something, often implying a prolonged separation. Meaning No. 2: to Lose Laisser less commonly means to lose something. Notice the verb continues to be transitive in this sense; it still takes a direct object. Il a laissà © un bras dans laccident.   He lost an arm in the accidentElle a failli laisser sa vie hier.   She almost lost her life yesterday. Laisser As a  Semi-Auxiliary  Verb When laisser is followed by an infinitive, it means to let (someone) do (something).   Il ma laissà © sortir.   He let me go out.Laisse-le jouer.   Let him play. Laisser as a  Pronominal Verb Se laisser plus infinitive means to let oneself be(come), as in: Il sest laissà © persuader. He let himself be persuaded.Ne te laisse pas dà ©courager  !   Dont let yourself get discouraged! Expressions with Laisser Laisser  is used in a number of idiomatic expressions, including: laisser tomber   to dropLaissez-moi rire.  Ã‚  Dont make me laugh.Laisse faire.  Ã‚  Never mind! / Dont bother!On ne va pas le laisser faire sans rà ©agir  !  Ã‚  Were not going to let him get away with that! Laisser As  a Regular French -er Verb The majority of French verbs are  regular  -er  verbs, as laisser  is. (There are five main kinds of verbs in French: regular  -er, -ir, -re  verbs; stem-changing verbs; and irregular verbs.) To conjugate a regular French  -er  verb, remove the -er  ending from the infinitive  to reveal the verbs stem. Then add the regular  -er  endings to the stem. Note that regular  -er  verbs share conjugation patterns in all tenses and moods. The same endings in the table can be applied to any of the regular French  -er  verbs listed below the table. Note that the following conjugation table includes simple conjugations only. Compound conjugations, which consist of a conjugated form of the auxiliary verb avoir  and the past participle laissà ©, are not included. Simple Conjugations of the Regular -er- Verb Laisser Present Future Imperfect Present participle je laisse laisserai laissais laissant tu laisses laisseras laissais il laisse laissera laissait nous laissons laisserons laissions vous laissez laisserez laissiez ils laissent laisseront laissaient Pass compos Auxiliary verb avoir Past participle laiss Subjunctive Conditional Pass simple Imperfect subjunctive je laisse laisserais laissai laissasse tu laisses laisserais laissas laissasses il laisse laisserait laissa laisst nous laissions laisserions laissmes laissassions vous laissiez laisseriez laisstes laissassiez ils laissent laisseraient laissrent laissassent Imperative tu laisse nous laissons vous laissez More Common French Regular -er Verbs Here are just a few of the most common regular-er verbs: *All regular  -er  verbs are conjugated according to the  regular  -er  verb conjugation pattern, except for one small  irregularity in verbs  that end in  -ger  and  -cer,  known as  spelling-change verbs.**Though conjugated just like regular  -er  verbs, watch out for verbs that end in  -ier. aimer  Ã‚  to like, to lovearriver  Ã‚  to arrive, to happenchanter  Ã‚  to singchercher  Ã‚  to look forcommencer*  Ã‚  to begindanse  Ã‚  to dancedemander  Ã‚  to ask fordà ©penser  Ã‚  to spend (money)dà ©tester  Ã‚  to hatedonner  Ã‚  to giveà ©couter  Ã‚  to listen toà ©tudier**  Ã‚  to studyfermer  Ã‚  to closegoà »te  Ã‚  to tastejouer  Ã‚  to playlaver  Ã‚  to washmanger*  Ã‚  to eatnager*  Ã‚  to swimparler  Ã‚  to talk, to speakpasse  Ã‚  to pass, spend (time)penser  Ã‚  to thinkporter  Ã‚  to wear, to carryregarder  Ã‚  to watch, to look atrà ªver  Ã‚  to dreamsembler  Ã‚  to seemskier**  Ã‚  to skitravailler  Ã‚  to worktrouve  Ã‚  to findvisiter  Ã‚  to visit (a place)voler  Ã‚  to fly, to steal

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Harlem Renaissance - 850 Words

Giselle Villanueva History IB Mr. Flores February 7, 2016 Period 4 Word Count: 693 Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was the first period in the history of the United States in which a group of black poets, authors, and essayist seized the opportunity to express themselves. The Great Migration was the movement of six million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North during 1916 to 1970. Driven from their homes by unsatisfactory economic opportunities and harsh segregationist laws, many African Americans headed north in search for a better future. Due to the aftermath of World War One , it brought many African Americans into the thriving New York City. Moreover, during the early 1920s the African Americans developed their own culture by the creation of art, music, literature, including the battle in fighting for their civil rights and the effect of the Great Depression. Throughout the Harlem Renaissance, writers and other artists came to Harlem for the opportunity to have a blank slate to express their creativity. In the 1920s African Americans expressed a growing pride in their heritage. Many creative black writers, musicians, and artists lived in the Harlem that the flourishing artists developed. As the back to Africa Movement led by Marcus Garvey hit the African Americans, creating art and a well respected culture in the American Mainstream. In addition, the African art and culture grew tremendously in which brought the developments ofShow MoreRelatedHarlem And The Harlem Renaissance Essay2269 Words   |  10 Pagessouthern African Americans migrated to a city called Harlem in New York. They relocated due to dogmatism and intolerance of melanin diverging out the of pores of many white southerners. The African Americans who migrated found new opportunities both economic and artistic that resulted to the creation of a stable middle class Black â⠂¬â€œAmericans (Dover, 2006). This was the Harlem Renaissance a cultural, social, and artistic explosion. The core of Harlem expressed by Alain Locke is that through art, â€Å"negroRead MoreHarlem And The Harlem Renaissance1430 Words   |  6 Pagesmoved in to urban cities such as Chicago, Detroit, and Harlem. Out of these northern metropolises, the most popular was Harlem; â€Å"here in Manhattan (Harlem) is not merely the largest Negro community in the world, but the first concentration in history of so many diverse element of Negro life†(1050). Harlem became the mecca of black people, and between the years of 1920 and the late 1930s it was known as the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance, brought artiest, poets, writers, musicians, and intelligentRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance1154 Words   |  5 PagesIV AP 16 November 2015 The Harlem Renaissance The early 1900s was a time marked with tragedy in America. Started and ended with the Great Depression in between, it was not America s finest moment. Prohibition was in place, the Klu Klux Klan was still marching, and the Lost Generation was leaving for Paris. But despite the troubling times, people still found beauty and meaning in the world around them. They still created art and celebrated life. The Harlem Renaissance was an artistic and literaryRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance941 Words   |  4 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement, in the early 1920’s, that involved vibrancies of new life, ideas, and perceptions. The large migration of African Americans northward, after World War I, allowed people of color the opportunity to collaborate in the New York City neighborhood, known as Harlem. This renaissance allowed the city to thrive on a refined understanding and appreciation of the arts. Many individuals were involved in this movement including doctors, s tudents, shopkeepers,Read MoreThe Harlem Renaissance1317 Words   |  6 Pagesday is the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance is the cultural movement of the 1920’s. The movement essentially kindled a new black cultural identity through art, literature and intellect. The Harlem Renaissance started during the Roaring Twenties. It took place in Harlem, New York. It became most prominent in the mid to late 1920’s and it diminished toward the early 1930’s (Henderson). The Harlem Renaissance was initially called the New Negro Movement or the New Negro Renaissance. It was theRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay1513 Words   |  7 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Chapter 1 Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Harlem Renaissance, an African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. According to Wintz: The Harlem Renaissance was â€Å"variously known as the New Negro movement, the New Negro Renaissance, and the Negro Renaissance, the movement emerged toward the end of World War I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then withered in the mid-1930sRead MoreHarlem Renaissance Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesHARLEM RENAISSANCE Throughout the history of African Americans, there have been important historical figures as well as times. Revered and inspirational leaders and eras like, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, Nat Turner and the slave revolt, or Huey Newton and the Black Panther Party. One such period that will always remain a significant part of black art and culture is the Harlem Renaissance. It changed the meaning of art and poetry, as it was known then. Furthermore, theRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay1031 Words   |  5 PagesHARLEM RENAISSANCE Throughout the history of African Americans, there have been important historical figures as well as times. Revered and inspirational leaders and eras like, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, Nat Turner and the slave revolt, or Huey Newton and the Black Panther Party. One such period that will always remain a significant part of black art and culture is the Harlem Renaissance. It changed the meaning of art and poetry, as it was known then. Furthermore, theRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay524 Words   |  3 Pages Harlem Renaissance nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Harlem Renaissance was a time of racism, injustice, and importance. Somewhere in between the 1920s and 1930s an African American movement occurred in Harlem, New York City. The Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of African-Americans and redefined African-American expression. It was the result of Blacks migrating in the North, mostly Chicago and New York. There were many significant figures, both male and female, that had taken partRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance Of The 1920s1557 Words   |  7 Pagesnot until the evil intentions of slavery crossed mankind’s thoughts that hue became our downfall, our separator. White supremacy eroded the idea of equality, and darker hues began to symbolize worthlessness, inferiority, and ugliness. The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s evoked the idea of black consciousness and pride. It was a movement established to express black literature, art, music, and culture. Blacks began to wear their dark hue like a badge of honor. Art, literature, and music became the

Monday, December 23, 2019

A Research Study On Rutgers University Students - 1132 Words

Rutgers University students enroll in many different majors. Throughout the student’s four year education, they get the opportunity to participate in internships which are not a requirement for graduation for every major. An example is the Psychology major. The Department of Psychology at Rutgers does not require its students to participate in any fieldwork, research, co-ops, or internships. The person that will serve as a patron for this project will be from the Department of Psychology, Chairperson David Vicario. The department will benefit from making this â€Å"choice†, an essential part of the major’s curriculum. Because Rutgers University is considered one of the top 10 colleges that teach psychology as a major it is important that they not only have a good educational program, but also a program that successfully helps students work on their field of study after graduation (Cahill). Therefore, the department would find it very beneficial to support this pr ogram. The program will require students enrolled in any psychology major to participate in programs that will reinforce their real world experience in their field of study and consequently increase their chances of landing a job after graduation in their field. Students at Rutgers, currently enroll in any psychology major will benefit from this program. This experience will make them stronger candidates that possess real world experience. Additionally, Rutgers University will also benefit from this program because itShow MoreRelatedThe Struggle Of Finding A Job1568 Words   |  7 Pagesmarket, severely hinder the future success of a student who is truly determined. The transition from school to the labor market is extremely alarming to students that they usually end up satisfied with a tedious, low-paid, labor-intensive and physically demanding job (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, Pastorelli 2001). Working a job that does not require a bachelor’s degree completely de-utilizes the education of students. The first and main problem students’ face is their lack of experience when applyingRead MoreThe Problem Of Textbooks Prices983 Words   |  4 Pagessemester of 2017, I completed my Applied Field Experience in the stateâ€℠¢s largest student-run nonprofit organization, New Jersey Public Interest Research Group (NJPIRG). I worked on the â€Å"Making Textbooks More Affordable† campaign, which addressed the problem of prohibitively high textbooks prices. A survey that involved more than 2,000 college students in 33 states and 156 different campuses finds out that average student spends $1,200 each year on textbooks and supplies alone, which equals to 39 percentRead MoreThe Importance Of A Higher Education Degree Essay1578 Words   |  7 Pagesa college degree has not followed suit. Nationally, roughly 50 percent of all students who start college earn a degree or certificate within six years (National Center for Education Statistics). At Rutgers University – Newark (RU-N), the organization that will be analyzed for this case study, roughly 65 percent of students complete their degree requirements within six years of starting (Rutgers Institutional Research Academic Planning). Therefore, it can be concluded, both on a national and localRead MoreMental Health, Social Work, And Psychology1559 Words   |  7 PagesNew York University. Coming to Rutgers University for my undergraduate studies has only solidified my deep love for the subjects of mental health, social work, and psychology. The courses I have taken at Rutgers such as Abnormal Psychology, Personality Psychology, Health Psychology, and more, has thoroughly broadened my intelligence of mental health and has also emphasized how abundant the problem of mental illness is in society. I started my career in psychology my freshman year at Rutgers as a ResearchRead MorePersonal Statement : Human Resource Management1332 Words   |  6 Pagesplan, and confidence in your skills obtained through past experiences. I secondly believe that your career choice should reflect the life you lead. I have chosen Human Resource Management (HRM) as my career path because of my life experiences, research, and previous collegiate courses which have all shown me the power and importance of HRM. Through these experiences I have not only gained my life goals, but some of the n ecessary skills for HRM. Those skills include, organization, time managementRead MoreIntroducing A Mentoring Program At Rutgers For College Graduates Joining The Workforce2138 Words   |  9 PagesIntroducing a mentoring program at Rutgers for college graduates joining the workforce Dear Dr. Siederer, Rutgers University offers a number of career services to assist students who are beginning their next steps after graduation including career fairs and a new career development model which focuses mainly on career interests. Nonetheless, we still notice a struggle during the students’ senior year of school concerning the job search process. A major turning point in students’ lives involves the careerRead MoreWhy Plagiarism Is Be Unethical And Immoral919 Words   |  4 PagesHow to Avoid Plagiarism in Professional Writing Professional writing demonstrates critical and creative thinking based on knowledge experience and research. When conducting professional writing it is important to avoid plagiarism at all cost. All schools have a plagiarism policy. For Union University in specific, plagiarism is listed under their Academic Integrity page and it states that not knowing is not an excuse. Plagiarism is considered to be unethical and immoral regardless of who commitsRead MoreFor Me, Scientific Research Was Like A Drug. The More I1688 Words   |  7 PagesFor me, scientific research was like a drug. The more I immersed myself in it, the more my mind wanted it. Before I knew it, I was an addict. But, instead of experiencing the negative side effects that coincide with substance abuse, research has been a long-lasting positive journey of discovering who I am and how the world around me functions. Being a first-generation college student, the pressure for pursuing a career in medicine was high. Despit e my passion for biology and science in general, IRead MoreThe Impact Of Violent Crime On The Rutgers New Brunswick Community3264 Words   |  14 Pageson the Rutgers New Brunswick community. Along with this letter, I have attached a comprehensive copy of my proposal which aims to improve the safety of New Brunswick by implementing a strategic policing approach to reduce violent crime after dark. The City of New Brunswick is relatively safe except for hours after dark when there have been many controversial incidents of victimization. The safety of Rutgers New Brunswick attracted major concern in early 2014 when a former Rutgers student was murderedRead MoreThe Challenges Of Being a University Student and a Mom Essay1702 Words   |  7 PagesWithin the growing number of women in higher education, there is a growing population of students who are also mothers. Mothers attempting to obtain a degree contend with home and family demands that affect their degree completion rates (Carney-Crompton Tan, 2002; Home, 1998). These postsecondary education students, unlike their traditional peers, are not developing into adult identities that are supported by a traditional college setting (Arnett, Ramos Jensen, 2001; Arnett, 2000) but instead

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Short Selling Free Essays

Short selling Short selling is a practice of selling a borrowed security that the seller does not necessarily own. Short sellers are generally betting that the price of security will go down, and  assume that they will be able to lock-in a certain profit by buying the security at a lower price than the price at which they originally sold short. Example of short selling Short seller borrows the security for a given fee and sells it short on the market for Rs 40000. We will write a custom essay sample on Short Selling or any similar topic only for you Order Now If tomorrow the price of security drops to Rs 38000, short seller could buy it back in order to return the security and lock a profit of 2000 (the price difference between 40000 and 38000), less the borrowing fee. Islamic Point of View Short selling is prohibited (Haram) from the Shariah perspective. Shariah scholars found several reasons behind which, short selling is considered haram, and the reasons are as follows:- 1- selling something you doesn’t own:-In Islamic transactions; to sell something you must first have the ownership of what is being sold or the subject of the sale. Therefore in order to sell a security, the security must be owned by the seller and not borrowed – which is the case in short selling. 2- Riba:-Short selling is associated with the conventional borrowing and lending system of securities which includes a series of interest-based charges for services, and interested payments on borrowed securities. And as we all know, charging interest on services and borrowed securities is considered as Riba. 3- Speculation: – Since short sellers are watching out for fluctuations in the markets, to sell the share at a higher price and buy it back at a lower price and pocket the difference. Speculation has been perceived negatively due to its resemblance with gambling. 4- Gharar/ Ghobun :- there is uncertainty in the contract and the buyer is also deceived. 5- unjust deeds Hamish Jiddiya Token money, down payment  by a party  intending to purchase certain goods who wishes to confirm the intention to do so by paying an amount to the seller as token money or down payment to secure the goods. Hamish Jiddiya is a collateral given for a promise to purchase. If the buyer is not proceeding to purchase, the seller can demand compensation for the actual damage, if the collateral is higher, the buyer receives an amount back, if the actual damage is higher, the the seller can demand additional compensation above the collateral. Arba’un The term Arba’un means an amount of money that the customer as purchase orderer pays to the Bank after concluding the Murabahah sale, with the provision that if the sale is completed during a prescribed period, the amount will be counted as part of the price. If the customer fails to execute the Murabahah sale, then the Bank may retain the whole amount. Waqf A Wakf is an unconditional and permanent dedication of property with implied detention in the ownership of God in such a manner, that the property of the owner may be extinguished and its profits may revert to or be applied for the benefit of mankind except for purposes prohibited by Islam. Examples of Waqf Land Buildings: one or more persons provide Cash as waqf to purchase land and buildings, e. g. a small shopping complex. Once the complex is purchased, the property may be classified as a waqf property and waqf rules apply. The property may not be sold (except to replace), be gifted, or inherited. The property remains intact and may not be spent. The rental income that is produced by the complex may be used for any shari’ah compliant purpose. Valid contract The remedy of specific performance presupposes the existence of a valid contract between the parties to the controversy. The terms of the contract must be definite and certain. This is significant because equity cannot be expected to enforce either an invalid contract or one that is so vague in its terms that equity cannot determine exactly what it must order each party to perform. It would be unjust for a court to compel the performance of a contract according to ambiguous terms interpreted by the court, since the court might erroneously order what the parties never intended or contemplated. Example A homeowner (who is over the age of 18 and of sound mind) signed a contract with the appliance store to buy a refrigerator. The homeowner pays for the refrigerator and the appliance store presents the refrigerator for the homeowner to take home. Void contract A void contract is not a contract and has no effect in a court of law and cannot be enforced in a court of law. Most commonly, a void contract will be missing one or all of the essential elements needed for a valid contract. Neither party needs to take action to terminate it, since it was never a contract to begin with. Example A contract that was between an illegal drug dealer and an illegal drug supplier to purchase a specified amount of drugs for a specified amount. Either one of the parties could void the contract since there is no lawful objective and hence missing one of the elements of a valid contract. Voidable Contracts A voidable contract is a contract, which may appear to be valid, and has all of the necessary elements to be enforceable, but has some type of flaw, which could cause one or both of the parties to void the contract. The contract is legally binding, but could become void. If there is an injured party involved, the injured party or the defrauded must take action, otherwise the contract is considered valid. Example A contract entered into with a minor could be voidable. Bai Tawliyah Bai Tawliyah Is a sale and buy-back agreement, is a type of Islamic finance that is a banking activity that is congruent with Shariah, which are the principles of Islamic law. Bai Tawliyah is a part of Islamic finance, such as a Muslim mortgage, where there is transaction of buying and selling between the customer and the financial institution. The financial institution, or the financier, will purchase an asset from a customer and the price that they pay for the asset will be disbursed by the terms that the financial institution lays out. Because of this the asset that is purchased is one that the payments are deferred and the price paid will be done so in installments. The second sale in this type of Islamic finance is done so in order to make the customer obliged to the financial institution. Commutative contracts Commutative contracts are those in which what is done, given, or promised by one party is considered same as the other or in consideration of what is done, given or promised by the other. A contract of sale is an example of a commutative contract. Put in a simple form, commutative contracts are contracts where the contracting parties give and receive something similar or an equivalent. An Example is a sale at less than two thirds of the value. Non-Commutative contract A non-compensatory contract in which a property is donated by one party to another against no consideration. The donor transfers ownership of the property to the done free of any commitment or obligation. Refrences http://www. ukessays. com/essays/economics/short-selling. php http://jazaa. rg/knowledge-center/islamic-finance-terminology/h/hamish-jiddiyah/ http://www. almustafatrust. org/content/Donate/Islamic/types/waqf. htm http://legal-dictionary. thefreedictionary. com/Valid+Contract http://www. trainagents. com/DesktopModules/EngageCampus/CourseContent. aspx? ModuleType=StudentMyCourses;CrsPageType=Topic;CourseRecordID=107;LessonRecordID=1372;TopicRecordID=24861;Demo=True http://definitions. uslegal. com/c/commutative-contracts/ http://majdbakir. com/islamic- finance/n/noncommutative-contract. html How to cite Short Selling, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Physical Therapy Pathophysiology

Question: 1. Are the five elements of patient management integrated into the case study? The five elements are: Examination, Evaluation, Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Interventions. Explain your answer. 2. Give an example of how each were demonstrated or not, within the information presented in the case study. 3. Compare and contrast somatic and visceral pain. 4. What type or types of pain are identified in this study? (2pts) 5. Define referred pain. What was the source of pain in this case? Why did the pain manifest itself in the testicle region? 6. How can the information presented in the case report be of value to you as a physical therapist practicing in a direct access setting? Answer: Yes, the five elements of patient management that are examination, evaluation, diagnosis, prognosis and interventions are integrated into the given case study. Prior to his PT examination, he was referred to an orthopaedic surgeon and after suitable examination; he is referred to PT for conservative management. During the period of PT evaluation different kinds of other complications were found based on which suitable diagnosis, prognosis, and interventions were carried out. One month prior to the PT examination, he was noted with a sharp right upper buttock pain followed by 1) right testicular pain and 2) posterior leg paresthesias. It was noted that his symptoms worsened, and he was further provided treatment by using non-steroidal inflammatory medicines and was then given reference for an orthopedic surgeon for the low back and buttock symptoms. With various kinds of medical diagnosis, he was further referred to PT for conservative management because of his continuing back and right lower extremity symptoms. During the time of evaluation associated with the PT, the patient was not being able to seat properly and was also not being able to run. He was also facing intense pain and the testicular symptoms with a provocation of active, sharp movements into extension. After suitable determination, the patient was given appropriate conservative management, which falls under the diagnosis portion. During the diagnosis period, he was treated 12 times by physi cal therapist for three months with the main objective for minimizing the limits on the spinal cord and hip flexibility. During the fourth visit, it specifically involved thoracolumbar junction and stretching of hip, which in turn reduced the buttock pain and the testicular pain of the patient. Mobilization included grade IV central and right unilateral that dealt with movements of the T-10 to L2 vertebrae along the anterior-posterior direction with adequate repetitions. The diagnosis also included stretching of the psoas muscle by holding the patient in the horizontal position that provided pelvic stability. During the remaining eight visits, the treatment involved identifying the restrictions and the primary focus was on addressing the succeeding trunk and the lower margin strength. Using a suitable Stabilizer pressure device, reduction of the neuromascular pain for the lower abdominal muscles was also implemented. The program of trunk reduction included exercises for strengthenin g the physical activities of the patient. When improvement was seen in the pelvic position, strengthening of the trunk musculature that included the neutral spine position was also introduced that emphasized further strengthening. Thus, various kinds of balanced movements were performed by applying a medium density foam mat. Somatic pain refers to the pain of the musculoskeletal system (Labus et al., 2016). Since, most of the nerve is associated with the supply of impulse to different kind of muscles, bones and other related tissues of the body it is much easier to locate the somatic pain than the visceral pain. The degree of somatic pain is also intense. The physical pain condition that arises because of the somatic pain specifically includes chronic back pain, pelvic pain, pelvic joint instability (Wegner et al., 2013). Somatic pains can be either deep or superficial that particularly arises from various kinds of nociceptive receptors that remain present in the skin, membranes and different joints of the body. Visceral pain refers to the internal pain. It particularly refers to the pain that comes from blood vessels and the various organs associated with the body (Wegner et al., 2013). Visceral pain makes the body feel dull, vague and may be harder to pinpoint (Cervaro, 2016). The common types of visceral pain include prostate pain, bladder pain. It specifically refers to generalized squeezing that is particularly caused by compression in and around the organs. The types of pain identified in this study are: Sharp Right Upper Buttock Pain Aching Right Testicular Pain Low Back Pain Referred pain relates to the pain that is perceived at the other location rather than the site where the painful stimulus is produced. The pain specifically resulted as a result of lower back injuries as well as the injuries caused by the muscle and the problems that are caused around the pelvis. The pain also rose because of the bulletproof jacket that he used to wear and the pain manifested itself in the testicular region as most of the pain was related to his lower region and as a result, the pain accumulated in the testicular region The information will help me to understand the problems that remain associated with the patient suffering from ventricular pain. It also includes better management of the patients by understanding the condition of the patient that the person is going through and as a PT; it will help me in dealing with more precise and effective way with patients who has been diagnosed with various kinds back pain. Differential Diagnosis for Physical Therapists (Chapter-1) The three factors that create a need for screening are: Medical Specialization With the increase in the specialization of medicine, the client remains associated with the evaluation by a medical consultant who is not being able to identify the cause of the disease or the authority may also assume that giving reference to the key care physician has also been associated with ruling the other causes. Progression of time and disease In particular, cases of screening, diagnosis of early signs and symptoms of systematic disease becomes challenging and as a result, it becomes difficult to identify until the disease has progressed enough by creating distressing or noticeable symptoms. In certain cases, the patient and the clients scientific presentation in the physician office may also become different, from which the analyst observes when the days separate the two appointments. Thus, for proper screening, it is important to give time and understand regarding the process of the disease that will help them in the better understanding of the symptoms. Patient/ Client Disclosure The patient client disclosure is another important factor that helps the therapist to know about the status of the health based on the social history that will help them in providing the current screening technique. The content of the suitable conversations thereby holds a vital screening clue from pointing out the systematic illness or the cause of the musculoskeletal or neuromuscular impairment. Answer to question-2 Nowadays it is becoming difficult for the physical therapists to screen patients in today's world because of the fact that now a day's PT runs in a shortage of time and, as a result, they skip in knowing the client history. As a result, correct diagnosis by the PT is not made because the diagnosis is not done, and thus, information is not extracted properly that will help them in the better understanding of the patient's position on the kind of disease from which the client is suffering. The concrete and the structured tools are not taken into consideration these days because the physical therapists are not getting proper education that helps them to the better understanding of the patient's condition. In recent days, the types of data that are generated from a client history are not also interpreted and as a result proper information about the social history and the other related factors are not taken as a suitable outcome. Answer to question-3 The System Review is defined as the concise or the incomplete examination dealing with anatomic and the physiological status of the cardiovascular/pulmonary, musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems. The System review has also taken into consideration the evaluation of the clients statement that focused on ability, cognition, learning and language style. The System Review also helps in looking beyond the key problem that forced the customer to bring to the therapist in the first instant. The System Review also helps the therapists to answer the question properly. The Review of Systems on the other hand forms a part of the screening process that serves as an important tool in recognizing the clusters of signs and symptoms that remains associated with it. It is thus used as an effective tool that helps the therapists to look back and take into consideration of all the presenting factors that suggests that the clients problems is beyond the understanding of the physical therapists practice. References Cervero, F. (2014). Pathophysiology of visceral pain.Revista Dor,15(2), 133-138. Goodman, C. C., Snyder, T. K. (2013).Differential diagnosis for physical therapists. Elsevier Health Sciences. Labus, J. S., Naliboff, B., Kilpatrick, L., Liu, C., Ashe-McNalley, C., dos Santos, I. R., ... Tillisch, K. (2016). Pain and Interoception Imaging Network (PAIN): A multimodal, multisite, brain-imaging repository for chronic somatic and visceral pain disorders.Neuroimage,124, 1232-1237. Wegner, A., Elsenbruch, S., Maluck, J., Schedlowski, M., Benson, S. (2013). 150. Somatic pain sensitivity during experimentally-induced inflammation in humans.Brain, Behavior, and Immunity,32, e43-e44.

Friday, November 29, 2019

The structure of keratin and collagen and show how their structures are suited to their biological functions Essay Example

The structure of keratin and collagen and show how their structures are suited to their biological functions Paper Keratin and collagen are very vital within the bodys structure; both are very similar in nature, being that they derive from amino acids, which make up their respective proteins. They both fall under a group of particular proteins known as scleroproteins or fibrous in nature. Majority of their structure consist of left-handed helix structures1. Scleroproteins make up one of the two major protein categories, the other being globular. Keratin and collagen each represent one of the three subclasses within scleroproteins. As scleroproteins their jobs are to provide support and protection for the body. They are adapt for this because of their complex structure of repeating polypeptide chains which strengthen as the bind together; this and their insolubility are vital in maintaining the anatomy of the body. Whilst being similar in some ways, collagen and keratin remain different in their specific functions and role. As mentioned above keratin is one of the three scleroproteins. It is an extremely strong, insoluble tertiary protein; it is the main constituent in the structures of various parts in the body. These include the skin, hair, nails, as well as horns and hooves in animals. The variety of body compounds that contain keratin show that it is a material that varies depending on function. In relation to skin, the amino acids, which make it up are arranged differently from any other form of keratin and make up the soft layer known as skin. It is present in all epithelial cells, those on the outer surface and on the inner surface such as the lining of the digestive tract. On the other end of things nails contain keratin, which are very hard. We will write a custom essay sample on The structure of keratin and collagen and show how their structures are suited to their biological functions specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The structure of keratin and collagen and show how their structures are suited to their biological functions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The structure of keratin and collagen and show how their structures are suited to their biological functions specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Other hard substances such as horns and hooves are formed by epithelial cells adapting to growing generous amounts of keratin and then dying as individual cells, leaving the keratin to form into these hard structures2. Where keratin is needed to be hard the arrangement of specific amino acids respond to the need to form a tough material. One of keratins important qualities is that it has the ability to flex and not tear of become destroyed. Keratin reinforces epithelial cells by helping to maintain their connections between cells. Cornification also known as keratinization is the foundation of how keratin in formed. The outer cells on the epidermis lose their function in this process, the cells organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria disappear and metabolism ceases as the cells become replaced by keratin. This new layer is incapable of sensory perception and is classified as dead. Keratin covers the width of a cell enabling it to connect indirectly with other keratin in adjoining cell to form junctions called desmosomes2, this makes the outer most layer of non-porous, almost water proof. There are many types of keratin found in the body and in mammals, each type structured to suit its function. The most common form of keratin found in most parts of the body is alpha keratin3. They have long fibrous strands that super coil into alpha helixes, the folds and the short repeating units along the polypeptide chain are what make up their composition. The alpha helix is formed from an alpha keratin polypeptide, two of these twists around each other to form a coil. The hydrophobic strips on one helix associates itself with the other. This allows the side chains to interlock. The combination of the two coils is known as a dimmer. This is the basis of the protofilament of which 2 make up a protofibril. Four protofibrils make up a microfibril. The associations of many microfibrils form a macrofibril4. Hair for example consists of layers of dead cells that are packed with macrofibrils. The diagram below shows a general idea of how the higher order of alpha keratin is structured. A key feature of its structure is that is contains cysteine disulfide, this makes up for almost 24% of the amino acid structure5, it allows it to form disulphide bridges which forms a helix shape that is extremely strong. As the sulphur atoms bond covalently to each other across the helix, it forms a fibrous matrix, which is highly stable. High percentages of glycine and alanine aid to the formation of hydrogen bonds between amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent peptide bonds6. The disulphide bridges and hydrogen bonding cause insolubility in things like water. This structural feature is vital in mammals. The long filaments present in the structure provide support for the epithelial cells that contain keratin such as skin. It protects the body from damage by allowing other tissues to form around it and stabilize. Collagen is one of other types of scleroprotein, as with keratin it is an important part in majority of the bodys structures. It is the main component in connective tissue. It makes up for roughly 25% of the bodys protein7. Its strength and insolubility make it the most abundant protein in mammals. Being a connective protein it is seen in body tissues such as the skin, muscles, tendon and cartilage. There are about 25 different types of collagen that occur in the body. Collagen widely works with the other scleroproteins supporting the bodys tissues. It does this by providing support, firmness and strength. Collagen may be seen in different forms such as endomysium and fibrous tissue8, different types being made for different parts of the body such as the cornea, bone, blood vessels as well as the gut. It is able to withstand intense pulling and stretching. It makes up the major stress bearing parts of connective tissue4. One of the most important qualities of collagen is strength; it has the tensile strength of steel and is used to strengthen bone similarly to how metal rods reinforce concrete. It has been seen as a form of glue that hold the body together; with out it the human body would not be one complete structure. Collagen appears to be able to do this as a result of features within its structure. For a long period of time scientists have struggled to identify the exact structure of collagen, this is because of its unusual amino acid composition. Collagen has a super-coiled helical shape, it is long, stringy, strong, and resembles a rope. Its primary structure consists of a repeating sequence of glycine and two other amino acids, often proline and hydroxyproline; this forms its sturdy structure. These amino acids cause the chain not to gain the normal alpha- helix or beta- sheet structure; instead they form the long separate chains that allow the collagen triple helix to form9. A single strand of collagen is composed of three chains of polypeptides each being about 1000 amino acids long, the three strands are arranged parallel to each other and are wound up into a triple helix. The bundling of the fiber together and hydrogen bonding between the lengths of the polypeptide chain give it strength. The diagram below gives a general idea as to how a collagen fiber is shaped. Collagens tightly wound matrix of fibers in its structure is very vital in its function, being that majority of the body comprises of it, it need be very strong. For instance collagen is a major component of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones to joints. The variance of collagen in these two parts is very little, but remain specialised for both areas. Both parts require strength and flexibility, things that are provided and adjusted from the compactions of the collagen fibers. As mentioned collagen varies in strength and flexibility depending on where its located and its function as connective tissue. Structural defects within the structures of vital proteins such as collagen and keratin can be responsible for major metabolic related diseases. Osteogenesis imperfecta also known as brittle bone disease is an example of one of these conditions that affect collagen. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder that causes extremely fragile bones. As a result people with the condition tend to have many fractures within a lifetime. It is an inherited disease; it is caused by mutations within the genes of type 1 collagen (the most prevalent collagen in the body). The deficiency stems from the substitution of the amino acid glycine, it should normally be at every third position for the triple helix to form properly, mutations that result in amino acids other than glycine in that position cause an issue within the collagen complex which produce unstable helices. The bodys lack of response to the dysfunctional collagen structure allows it to be hydrolyzed. When unstable helices form in the collagen associated with tendons and bones, such as Type I collagen, severely weak bone formation results10. There are 8 types of OI ranging form type I- VIII. The later being the worst case of it. The severity the condition depends on the specific gene defect. OI is typically hard to generalize as it varies from person to person, even when two people in the same family have the same form of it, the characteristics may be completely different. Symptoms of the condition vary; they may include blue sclera and early hearing loss. Milder forms of OI result in bowed arms and legs, scoliosis and kyphosis11. Currently there arent any cures for the condition. Treatment is directed toward preventing or controlling the symptoms, maximizing independent mobility, and developing optimal bone mass and muscle strength. Various forms of therapy are in place to reduce suffering for individuals with the condition. In extremely severe cases a surgical procedure called rodding is used. This involves inserting metal rods through the length of the long bones to strengthen them and prevent and/or correct deformities12. Research into various medication and other treatments are being explored, some include growth hormones, gene therapy and other multiple types of drugs.