Monday, September 16, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird Chapter Notes

Macomb Is a slow, tired town with an Incredible assortment of citizens. But, all of them are typical small town personalities: the gossips, the hicks, the poor, the upper- class, the bogeyman, etc. Tactics Is a lawyer, a â€Å"satisfactory† father and supportive of his family. Gem Is the typical older brother and Scout the typical younger sister. They are best friends. Yet fight/argue plenty. 2. Dill is small for his age, with white-blond hair and has seen a lot of movies.He visits Macomb (his Aunt Rachel) every summer room now on. He is quite obsessed with the Raddled house. 3. Arthur hung out with a bad crowd and got arrested for disorderly conduct, etc. His father convinced the Judge to let him keep Arthur locked in the house instead of a state industrial school. He was never seen again for 15 years. The children now see him as a type of bogeyman. (pig. 13) 4. The Raddled house is a forbidden place – it's full of danger and unknown, which is exactly the sort of thing kids are attracted to. 5. The narration Is first person, Scout Finch, but she is much older than the character she Is describing.Therefore, the â€Å"present† Is when Scout Is older, and the plot of the novel Is the â€Å"past†. It Is a memoir. Chapter 2 1. Scout Is looking forward to school because It had been a long winter of slating In her trousers and watching the kids in the school yard. School looked fun to her. â€Å"l longed to join them. † (pig. 20) 2. Gem didn't want anything to do with Scout at school because he didn't want her to embarrass him with references to his personal life (pig. 20). This is typical for an older sibling because it is considered â€Å"cool† to hang out with your siblings at school. . Miss Caroline is good at her job as a teacher but she as a lot to learn about the small town, the school and the people of the town. Strengths – She cares about her students (ex. Walter) and she is good at what she does with lots of knowledge about teaching. Weaknesses – She doesn't understand her students and the protocol of the town yet and she Is abusive (ex. Whipping with a ruler). Chapter 3 1. California Is the cook for the Finch family and Is not related by blood but she cares a lot about Gem, Scout and Tactics. She is portrayed as a motherly figure.She also acts as a care taker for Gem and Scout, once again taking upon a motherly role. . We learn that Walter Cunningham is devoted to his traditions but forgets to follow them at times. His behavior during lunch time suggests that his home life is a struggle, as there is not always food on the table. Therefore, when Gem Invites him for lunch, he piles food on his table (he might have been hungry for a couple days. It is the Depression and not everyone is lucky enough to eat every day and Walter is one of those people). 3. Tactics treated Walter with respect as In the book it stated Walter and Tactics talked together like two men.This shows respect, c ompared to Scout, who penny criticized Walter about his eating habits, unaware of his difficult situations. 4. From Walter's visit, Scout learns about hospitality and how to treat a guest. It was not fair to Judge people. She â€Å"learned† this because California scolded her for cringingly Walter's behavior, punishing her by making her finish her lunch in the kitchen. 5. By perspective and what they are going through unless you look through their eyes, think like the person and are put into their position and situation. This is not an easy thing for Scout to learn – she is still young. 6.We learn that the Ells are very poor, eave poor hygiene, only go to school the first day of the year and have no mother. Their father breaks the law – hunting out of season – but the people allow it because they think I better than arresting him and letting his kids go hungry. Chapter 4 1 . Scout doesn't like the Dewey Decimal System. She gets the impression that she's m issing out on something she doesn't know. Also, she doesn't believe that 12 years of unrelieved boredom was exactly what Macomb has in her mind for her. 2. The children believe that Raddled house is haunted and a ghost lives there (Boo).They think the nuts on the trees in front of the Raddled house will kill you. . The children make Boob's story into a game because they are tired of their old games and they're interested/curious about Boo, his life story and the other Raddled a bit too. 4. In the Boo Raddled game, they each play a role of a family member in the Raddled house. They reenact scenes they made up or believed happened before. This is not an accurate version of what happens in the Raddled house because they've never really seen the truth. 5. The laughter from inside the Raddled house could be Boo or Nathan laughing at how ridiculous the kids are being about this situation.Chapter 5 1. Miss Maude despises the outdoors but has a nice big garden with plants she loves. Her spe ech is â€Å"crisp†, which is uncommon for a woman in Macomb. The children love her because she lets them play in her big backyard whenever they wish. 2. Miss Maude tells Scout that Boo is still alive despite the rumors Scout has heard about him being dead. However, Miss Maude says that if he were dead, they would have seen them take him out. 3. Dill may have told these lies because it seems that his parents aren't there for him.He never gets the opportunity to feel special and telling tales about seeing an elephant or going on an airplane would make him eel special. 4. Tactics wants the children not to play the Boo Raddled game because what Mr†¦ Raddled did was his own business and he has the right to stay inside. He says the kids would not like it if someone was invading into their privacy and they were no longer to go to that house again unless they were invited. Tactics is right as it is disrespectful to be bothering someone like that and the kids don't know how dang erous Boo might be. Chapter 6 1 .Scout disapproves of Dill and Gem's plan because she is scared of the Raddled house because of the rumors she has heard. Moreover, Tactics asked the kids to leave the Raddled alone and she obeys her father. 2. Mr†¦ Nathan Raddled was not aware who the intruder in his garden was. Ms. Stephanie believes it was a black man because nobody else would be out at a time like this (very late night). 3. Dill almost lands in trouble because Miss Rachel overheard him saying he was playing strip poker and won Gem's pants. Strip poker was not something played by the common educated man and was not morale. Chapter 7 1 .Gem told Scout that when he went back to get his pants back off the fence from the Raddled house, they were roughly stitched up, folded up and waiting for him on the once. 2. Gem is starting to understand Boo more now because he thinks it is Boo that fixed his pants. This is making him realize that Boo is really not a bad person! 3. Gem Raddled house and now wants to keep everything they find. Some things they found were chewing gum, pencils and a pocket watch. 4. Gem and Scout wanted to write a letter; thanking whoever was leaving them the presents in the knothole (we are assuming it is Boo).However, they were prevented from doing this because it was filled with cement. Nathan Raddled filled it with cement because he wanted this communication to stop. He was taking away Boob's only communication with the kids! He also didn't want them to leave the letter and when the kids asked why he filled it, Mr†¦ Nathan made the excuse that the tree was sick. Chapter 8 1 . Scout wants to know if Tactics saw Boo Raddled, as she is curious to know more about him. Tactics sternly replies with a short answer, merely saying he didn't see him. 2. The near libel Gem puts in the front yard is a snow made replica of Mr†¦ Avery.Tactics was very surprised Gem got the Job done and said he had done an amazing job and it looked Just like Mr†¦ Avery. He was very impressed however told Gem that he ad to disguise it, as it may be disrespectful to Mr†¦ Avery. Miss Maude is impressed as well, since she is grinning but is Just fussing about it negatively (according to Tactics – pig. 90). 3. Tactics saved Miss Muddies rocking chair because it was the thing that she valued most (Pig. 93) 4. Scout has no idea how the blanket got there, but Gem realizes it must have been Boo Raddled that put it there since the kids were standing in front of the Raddled house. . I think Tactics means that Gem should not get his hopes up. Just because Boo came out and they didn't notice, doesn't mean they will actually get the chance to meet him. They should stop interfering in Boob's personal life as it was none of their business. Gem may do as his father says now because he has realized that Boo is not the monster that they thought; he is actually a sympathetic, kind man who has Just gone through some tough times. This helps Gem's curiosity fade away and shows him more about Boob's personality, making him realize he's Just like any other human being.Chapter 9 1 . Tactics believes that Tom Robinson is not guilty and therefore he is doing the right thing by defending him. He wants to take upon this case on to the best of his ability. However, it is not usual for a white man to defend a black because almost everyone in Macomb was racist. 2. Gem and Scout love Christmas time but they would rather spend it at home with their dad than with their Uncle Jimmy and Aunt Alexandra. Also, Scout does not like her cousin, Francis, because they don't have similar interests and she is calling Tactics a â€Å"Niger lover†, which is seen as a bad thing.He is taunting Scout about her father. 3. When Uncle Jack tells Scout she is growing out of her pants, he means she is acting too mature for her age and is not old enough to understand he difficult concepts of life, therefore should not act like she does, especially the ones affecting Attic's life. He is telling Scout that she is getting more aware of world concepts that she may be too young for. Also, she is too young for swearing and the like. 4. We learn that the unpleasant feature of Aunt Alexandra is her negative attitude towards Dill.We learn that she looks down upon Dill and refers to him as a stray dog because of his family problems. She has also been saying some unpleasant things about Tactics in regards to the court case. Aunt Alexandra seems to be a very critical and Judgmental person. . From overhearing Uncle Jack and Attic's conversation, Scout heard Uncle Jack telling Tactics he doesn't want to have kids of some hard times coming her way for the next year because of the issues involving the court. The town is prejudice and therefore Scout may have to hear some unpleasant things going around about her father taking upon the case.This also implies that Tactics knows that people are condemning him for taking the case. 6. The final s entence of this chapter is important because it tells us that Tactics wanted the kids to hear what he was saying (ask him what happened rather than believing moors). Chapter 10 1 . When Scout says that â€Å"Tactics was feeble†, I believe this is her opinion as the events are happening in her childhood, but by the end of the chapter she doesn't believe this anymore because she learns about her father's amazing aim and that he has a mysterious past. . Tactics says â€Å"it's a sin to kill a mockingbird† but Miss Maude is the one who explains why – it is a sin because the birds do not cause any harm to anyone and Just make music. 3. Heck Tate didn't want to be the one to shoot the dog (Tim Johnson) because he doesn't have a good aim and he knows he would have robbery hit the Raddled house instead, which could cause a big problem. 4. Tactics cuts off Tate as he is speaking to Gem because he was about to reveal something about Attic's past that he does not want his kids to know. 5.Gem believes they shouldn't tell anyone at school about Attic's shooting abilities but Scout thinks they should (she wants to brag about her father to everyone at school). I agree with Gem because there was probably a reason Tactics didn't tell them about how well he can shoot and did not want it to be something public. Gem seems to respect and understand his dad's point of view. Chapter 11 . Tactics tells Gem to â€Å"hold your head high and be a gentleman† when Mrs†¦ Dubos is taunting him about his father. He tells Gem to let anything she says or does to make him mad because she's old and sick.He says to Just be respectful towards her. 2. Mrs†¦ Dubos tells Gem and Scout that their mother was a lovely woman and there was no woman lovelier than her. She wished their father had remarried though – when she said this, Gem was furious and it made him mad. 3. Mrs†¦ Dubos asked Gem to read to her every afternoon after school and on Saturdays, f or two hours, for a month as a punishment for his â€Å"crime†. It was a fair punishment but it wasn't fair that he had to do it for so long. 4. Tactics thinks insults like â€Å"Niger lover† don't mean anything to him.He Just thinks people happen to say them in their everyday language when the want to label someone. I do not agree with him because that are saying it on purpose and it is disrespectful and rude. 5. Tactics though Mrs†¦ Dubos was a great lady because she was full of courage and bravery. She was a morphine addict but decided to become clean before she died and she fulfilled this promise to herself. He said she died free. 6. When Tactics says Mrs†¦ Dubos is a model of real courage rather than a man with a gun in his hand, I think he is right. He means that it takes real courage to die sober.He explains to Gem and Scout that a man with a gun isn't real courage, it's Just physical bravery. Real courage is doing what's right, no matter the circumsta nces, which is what Mrs†¦ Dubos did. 7. I think Harper Lee chooses to end the first part of the book after chapter eleven because it is a turning point in Scout's childhood. Scout has left Boo Raddled behind, which was a major theme in part 1. Part 2 seems like it will start a new theme, or a new part in Scout's Essen, so it seems like he perfect way to end the first part. Chapter 12 1 . Scout and Gem's visit to the First Purchase Church (Scaloppini's church) went well.They were welcomed by everybody except Lull, who is explained as a trouble maker. They both don't understand some of the things that this church does like not having a book of hymns to sing from, but all this later get explained to them from California. 2. Scout learns many new things about black people that she was unaware of and these were quite surprising to her. She learned that blacks are as educated as they are. She learns this when she asks California why they don't have hymn books and California explains that it is because most of the black people don't know how to read. 3.Gazebo is Scaloppini's eldest son and Scout learns that when Gazebo was younger, there wasn't a school for him to attend since he was black. Since there was no school for him, California taught him by making him read a page of the Bible everyday as well as reading the â€Å"Blackstone Commentaries† (a book gifted to her by Gem and Scout's grandfather). 4. California speaks differently at the Finch house compared to her friends at church because she says it is not right for a black woman o talk like a white person. She wants to be lady like and not show off to people because it aggravates them.Chapter 13 1 . Aunt Alexandra moves in with the Finch family for a while because she thinks it is good for Scout to have a feminine influence and thinks she should be there for her as she will be interested in boys and clothes soon. 2. The first couple things Aunt Alexandra says when she comes to the Finch household ar e typical of her – â€Å"Put my bag in the room California. Jean Louise, stop scratching your head. † She is racist, bossy and strict about acting proper. It is evident she is racist because she remarks bout Tactics defending a black man, saying it will ruin the family's reputation.Moreover, Francis learned taunts like â€Å"Niger lover† from Aunt Alexandra. She is also bossy because she is always scolding Scout and telling her she must act more lady- like and demands that Tactics needs to stop letting the kids run about. 3. Aunt Alexandra thinks Scout is dull because she does not share much with Aunt Alexandra as she does not feel they are close enough and they do not share the same ideas. 4. The people on Gem and Scout's street gave Aunt Alexandra a very warm welcome. She got along well with the neighbors. Miss Maude baked a Lane cake, Miss Stephanie came over, Miss Rachel invited her for coffee and even Mr†¦Nathan Raddled came to greet her! Aunt Alexandr a became secretary of the Macomb Amanuensis Club. She also had the Macomb ladies over for tea. 5. Aunt Alexandra thinks the Finches are made of many generations of â€Å"gentle breeding† (said by Tactics); they are an old family of originals of Macomb. Aunt Alexandra thinks the kids need to act more like ladies and gentlemen to show how worthy one of Macomb's oldest families are and to carry the honor of being a Finch. This shows that Aunt Alexandra thinks of the Finches are better than most families in Macomb.Tactics however told the kids not to worry about this and he does not want them to think about how they are supposed to act (they are Just children). I agree with Tactics because it should not be necessary to act or live a certain way Just based on which family you come from. Chapter 14 1 . Attic's explanation of rape was very unsuitable for Scout because it was beyond her understanding. He said the rape was â€Å"carnal knowledge of a female by force and up when I ask ed her what it was? † This shows that Scout does not understand what her father is saying. 2.Aunt Alexandra wants to dismiss California because she thinks that she can replace California now that she has moved in with them. She thinks California hasn't make Scout into a lady and that now she can take upon the motherly role in the house as well as take upon the Job of cooking for the family. Tactics does not agree with anything she says. He says â€Å"l don't think the children have suffered one bit from her having brought them up. † He says that without California, they wouldn't be able to get through many situations, as she is part of the family. Moreover, he does not wasn't Alexandra working hard (cooking). Scout doesn't like that Gem has been acting more mature lately and involving himself in adult situations. Him fighting her back showed that he is still childish, which cheers Scout up a bit. When he tells Tactics about Dill however, she is very disappointed. She fe els as if he had broken their â€Å"childhood code†. Also, she thinks that Tactics may get mad at Dill and make him go back home. 4. From Dill's account of his running away, we learn that he prefers to run off to Macomb where he doesn't have anyone except Gem and Scout, rather than being with parents that don't pay attention to him.We also learn that he lies about most of the things that he says. This may be because it makes him feel special to get that attention. Chapter 15 1 . The â€Å"nightmare† that descends upon the children is the intense racism that threatens to harm not only their father, but even them – the reality of what their father's involved in is now apparent. 2. The UK Klux Klan was an organization of men developed on promoting and enforcing racist and intolerant ideals. Although the group has evolved over time, they are most notably identified by the wearing of sheets and robes to hide their identities (gangsters).I feel Attic's description of the ASK really downplays the dangerous nature of the ASK, which he probably deliberately does so as not to alarm Gem. 3. Gem refuses to go home when Tactics tells him to because he realizes that his father is outnumbered and facing physical harm. This reinforces the courage of Gem. 4. Scout's innocent attempt at striking up polite conversation with Walter Cunningham father seems to remind the men of who they are individually, and not as a mob and perhaps makes them ashamed of what they're doing to Tactics and his children.This persuades the lynching party to give up their attempt on Tom's life. . This chapter really highlights how the innocence of youth is able to affect this corrupt gang – it reminds us that this is a story about a youngster whose innocence will be challenged with growing up. Scout is learning what we all learn: people aren't always as they seem, bad things can happen in good little towns and people don't always share the same beliefs, nor are they tolerant of others' beliefs. Chapter 16 1 . Scout notices that Tactics is starting to become annoyed and impatient with Aunt Alexandra. L was beginning to notice a subtle change in my father these days, which came out when he talked with Aunt Alexandra. It was a quiet digging in, never outright irritation. † 2. Mr†¦ Dollops Raymond is a wealthy white man who lives with his black wife and they have mulatto kids. He also sits with and enjoys being around blacks instead of whites. He isn't racist and doesn't think of the blacks as lower class people. He is also a drunkard. 3. Reverend Sykes takes the children to the balcony a kind gesture of the reverend because he doesn't know the kids were instructed not to come.If he knew they shouldn't have been there, then he should not have helped them to get in the courthouse and watch the trial. 4. Judge Taylor is and informal edge and often puts his feet up and naps during trials. He likes to clean his fingernails with a pocketknife. He is i ntelligent and knows a lot about the law even though it seems like he takes his Job casually. He keeps a firm grasp that comes before him. He also has an interesting habit of permitting smoking in his courtroom. The trial hasn't officially started but I think he will take this trial seriously. Chapter 17 1 .Heck Taste's evidence – Heck informs everyone that no one had called for a doctor, Bob Lowell was the one who called him and he say Amylase's wounds (around her neck, on her arms and her right eye is black). With Hack's statements, Tactics shows that there was no physical evidence of a rape since a doctor was not called. 2. In this chapter, we learn a lot about the Lowell family and their home life. They are on welfare, there are a lot of kids but no longer have a mother and they live in extreme poverty – behind the dump and close to the blacks. Also there is someone planting flowers there (we can infer it is Male). . From Bob Else's evidence, we learn that he heard his daughter screaming and saw Tom inside the house from the window. Bob said Tom was gone by the time he got on and then he hurried to go get Heck Tate. 4. Tactics wants Bob to write out his name to see if he is left handed or not. Since Male has a black eye on the right eye, it is most likely the person who hurt her was left handed and the Jury saw that Bob was left handed. This portrays Bob as the villain and we can infer that it might have been Bob that hurt Male. Chapter 18 1 . Male is different from her father.She cares more about her appearance as she tries to stay clean, as opposed to her father who looked like he bathed yearly. Also, she is more sensitive (she cries in the courtroom), whereas Bob Lowell seems to take everything as a Joke. . Male may have been crying in the courtroom to make people feel sorry for her when she was reminiscing about what happened to her. It added a â€Å"dramatic effect† to her story and made the Jury feel sorry for her. She played the role of â€Å"poor little white girl†. 3. Male does not react well to Attic's attempts at being polite.She thinks that Tactics is mocking her when he calls her Ma'am and Miss Male. This shows that she is not used to people treating her kindly or being polite towards her as she thinks it is a Joke when someone does. This could show that her home life isn't that great. 4. Mr†¦ Gilder does not prove Tom's guilt that well. He Just asks Male her side of the story and that's it. In the eyes of the Jury however, he may be more convincing. This is because the whole town is racist and prejudice against Tom already. Therefore they would be more likely to support Male (innocent little white girl) opposed to a black man.Chapter 19 1 . Tom visited the Lowell house because Male wanted Tom to bust up a chiffonier for her. 2. Scout thinks that Male is the loneliest person in the world because in the trial it is revealed to us that Male does not have any friends. 3. Male does not have a very good relationship with her father. At the trial we find out that he is a drunkard and we can infer he may even be abusive. 4. Dill started crying during this part of the trial because he knew that Tom wasn't being treated fairly and that Mr†¦ Not mature enough to understand the meaning of things such as racism.Chapter 20 1. Mr†¦ Dollops Raymond is not an evil man. He acts like he is always drunk to protect himself from people knowing that he likes black people. He understands how they feel when being discriminated and believes that they are the exact same as everyone else. . Mr†¦ Raymond hides Coca-Cola in a paper bag so people think that it is alcohol. He wants an excuse for acting the way he does and for liking black people. Mr†¦ Raymond wants people to Judge his actions (which he believes are right) not by his personality, but to blame it on his â€Å"drinking problem†. . Tactics thinks Male is in the wrong because she tried to cheat a black man a nd make up a story to get him punished (even though this is common). Tactics says that Male knew she lied and â€Å"put evidence of her offense away from her. † â€Å"She knew full well the enormity of her offense. † (pig. 272) 4. Tactics feels that all people should be treated equally, no matter their age, race or gender. In the trial, he is trying to express this by telling the Jury that what Male did was wrong because she was trying to get a black man in trouble.He says muff should have never come to the trial. This case is as simple as black and white. † Mr†¦ Raymond also talks about Tactics as being a good person and sharing the same views as him. Chapter 21 1 . Gem expects the verdict to be Tom Robinson declared innocent. Tactics does not share Gem's confidence because he realizes how difficult it can be to change meson's mind when they have their mind set on something and unwilling to change their view, especially when a black man is involved. 2. One would expect the jury to be fairly quick to reach a verdict about this case.Most would believe any trial involving a black man would be over quickly, since they believe that the black person will always be guilty. The fact that it took the Jury so long to make a decision indicated that at least a few of them believed that Tom Robinson was innocent. I believe the verdict wasn't predictable. Although history indicates that Tom Robinson will be found guilty, you still want to believe otherwise. . While waiting to hear the verdict, Scout think back to the incident regarding the mad dog, which reminds us of one of the novel's central themes, which is courage.She remembers this event because in both that incident, as well as the trial, she witnessed true acts of courage, both performed by her father. Tactics had the courage to do what was right and put down Tim Johnson for the best of the people of Macomb. Then, during the trial, Tactics did everything within his power to defend a black p erson, even though it put almost every person in Macomb against him, it was the right thing to do. Chapter 22 1 Aunt Alexandra thinks the children shouldn't have been allowed to go to the trial, but Tactics Justifies them by saying, â€Å"This is their home, sister†¦ Hey might as well learn to cope with it. † (pig. 285) Although Tactics did not want the kids in court, he believes that the children must be exposed to the harsh realities of Macomb and they have to learn to cope with this. 2 Miss Maude tells Gem that things are never as bad as they seem because it is important to look beyond all of the bad results and see the good side of people and situations. She tells him that good people helped in his trial – Tactics, Judge Taylor and Macomb's black community all stood behind Tom, supporting him through everything.See the glass half full. 3 Dill says that he wants to be a clown when he grows up because he wants to laugh at people all the them. However, Dill repli es saying, â€Å"Well I'm goanna be a new kind of clown. I'm goanna stand in the middle of the ring and laugh at the folks. † (pig. 290) I don't think Dill will keep this ambition for long because he seems to change his mind a lot and tell stories all the time. 4 Attitudes towards racism have changed for the better since the ass's and ass's. Although, racism is still an issue in some modern societies, the severity is much less. Bob Lowell is angry with Tactics because he made him look bad in front of the entire town, ruining his reputation. I think this threat might be a real one but I don't think he will kill Tactics, instead get him back in another way. Chapter 23 1 . When Tactics paid no heed to Bob Else's threat, it was the right reaction. Bob was just trying to aggravate Tactics and get under his skin but instead Tactics reacted the opposite of what Bob wanted, staying calm. 2. Circumstantial evidence is evidence hat is based only if another circumstance is correct. This usually isn't enough or valid proof.This has to do with Tom's conviction because it was based on Heck Taste's circumstantial proof (which was only based on Male and Bob's word). 3. Tactics tells Scout it took the Jury so long to convict Tom because not everyone in the Jury was against Tom and people were really starting to think for themselves, looking at the facts, rather than Just the color of his skin. 4. Social classes are not good for society as they create discrimination. Everyone should be treated equally and it is not air to say one family is better than another. You should not Just mix with the people in the same class as you, but instead treat everyone equally. . Gem thinks the reason Boo Raddled hasn't left his house in so long is because he does not want to. He does not want to be a part of a society that is prejudice and Judgmental. I agree with Gem because Boo comes out when he wants to (ex. Putting the blanket on Scout during the fire) however, he Just wants to do ni ce things for people, no matter who they are and that is why he expects others to be the same and treat everyone fairly and equally. Chapter 24 1 . I don't think that the missionary ladies were sincere when talking about the Mourns because they Just needed something to talk about that was related to religion. . When Scout said that her britches were under her dress, the other ladies all laughed at Scout but Miss Muddies reaction was very serious and she did not laugh. Scout said it was because Miss Maude never laughed at her unless she meant to be funny. 3. The Macomb ladies as depicted in this chapter are very devoted to God, however the majority of them are very prejudice and discriminatory. They have tropically female roles (wearing dresses and gossiping) and are Just like most of the other people in Macomb (hating blacks and going to church. 4. Tom was killed while he was trying to escape from the prison.He charged at the fence and tried to climb it during their exercise period. He was shot 17 times! Attic's explanation is that Tom was probably tired of white men taking chances for him, so he decided to take one of his own. I agree with Tactics because during this whole trial, Tom's life was in the hands of white men and he saw an opportunity to finally take it into his own hands and so he took the chance. . In this chapter, we see Aunt Alexandra in a new light because we see her more sensitive side by showing that she only wants brother, and I Just want to know when this will ever end. † (pig. 236).Miss Maude supports Alexandra when the missionary circle is insulting Tactics and she sticks up for him by reminding the women that they are in Attic's house eating his food so they need to be respectful. Chapter 25 1 . When Macomb hears about tom's death, Macomb gossips for about two days and they act as if Justice has been served. This shows how willing Macomb is to simply excuse the death of a black man. 2. Tom's death was considered typical because he ran away and was shot. The death of black people in that time period happened regularly. People responded with â€Å"Niger always comes out in ‘me. 3. Scout sees that the court Our) in Macomb was giving in Just because of the fact that Tom was black. They said he we guilty despite all the evidence that proved otherwise. The town was not ready to change their view on black people, but in their hearts, they knew the truth. 4. Gem wanted to protect his family and he was doing what Tactics would have done in the situation – acting like Bob's comment had never been made in the first place. I think this was a very wise thing to do because Tactics really didn't need to know Bob Else's comment (he was trying to provoke them). Chapter 26 1 .When Miss Gates says American people don't believe in persecuting anyone, it seems off because it is not true. People are persecuted in America based on prejudice verdicts in this book as well as persecuted in general in the States. This st atement is off because she is lying by saying that there is no persecution. 2. Scout is puzzled by Miss Gate's disapproval of Hitler because she doesn't understand why Miss Gates hates him and why she is talking about all these awful things he did. She is also confused because she doesn't know why everyone seems to hate Hitler and she is upset that Miss Gates is talking badly about him and his past doings.Tactics taught them that it is not right to hate anybody. 3. Scouts question: â€Å"How can you hate Hitler an' then turn around and be ugly to folks right at home? † upsets Gem because when she asks him this, it may have reminded him of how Tom Robinson was treated due to his race. People did not believe his story and therefore he was found guilty in court, persecuting him because of his race. There isn't really an answer to this question because it is all based on the type of person you are as well as your beliefs. ‘ Chapter 27 1 .Aunt Alexandra is alarmed by Bob's b ehavior after the trial. Firstly, he threatened Helen Robinson (Tom's wife) by following her, throwing things at her and calling her names. He also tried to break into Judge Tailor's house and lastly, he threatened Tactics that he would get even with him. 2. Tactics thinks Bob is holding a grudge against people who were involved in the trial and sees them as his enemies. This is because Bob felt as if though these people ruined his reputation and made him look ad in front of most of Macomb. . The Halloween pageant took place in an attempt to keep the children off the street on Halloween night. Chapter 28 1. This chapter reminds me of earlier events in the novel like when Bob Lowell threatened Tactics after the trial. We know Bob isn't a good man because of what his daughter reveals during the trial (a drunk, abusive, etc. ). This chapter begins with descriptions of the Raddled house, which reminds us of the Boo Raddled game and the events involving Boo, to bring back our feelings ab out him before other events occur.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Discipline and Improve Students Behaviour in Classroom Education Essay

The problem of how best to discipline and improve students’ behaviour in classroom is of permanent interest. This review is oriented to searching different methodologies concerning students’ behaviour in classrooms, teachers’ discipline strategies and behavioural management. Different points of view and different examples for appropriate behaviour have been discussed referring to the topic. The sources reviewed present different solutions. This paper examines also the classroom environment and its relation to successful behaviour implementation. The first paragraphs give different definitions conversant with behaviour and discipline according to the authors’ view. The continuation of the literature review is presented by different approaches and strategies concerning a good behavioural management. This elaboration sets out some of the arguments and recommendations which are discussed in more detail. Charles C. M. submits several definitions corresponding to behaviour: Behaviour refers to everything that people do. Misbehaviour is behaviour that is not appropriate to the setting or situation in which it occurs. Discipline†¦ are strategies, procedures, and structures that teachers use to support a positive learning environment. Behaviour management is a science that puts an accent on what teachers have to do to prevent misbehaviour (Charles 1). Students’ behaviour depends on several factors such as traditions, demographic settings, economic resources, family, experiences, and more. Some authors have made important contributions in managing classroom discipline related the twentieth century. Jacob Kounin (1971), one of them, reports that appropriate student behaviour can be maintained through classroom organization, lesson management, and approach to individual students. Rudolf Dreikurs (1972) on the other hand emphasizes the desire to belong as a primary need of students in school. He identifies types of misbehaviour and gives ideas about how to make students feel a part of the class or group (p. 63). William Glasser (1986) shows another view, making a case that the behaviour of someone else cannot be controlled. He reckons that everybody can only control his own behaviour. Personally I support this idea that we must control ourselves. According to the opinion of the other authors, Linda Albert’s, Barbara Coloroso’s, Nelson and Lott’s a good discipline in the classroom can be achieved through Belonging, Cooperation, and Self-Control. A similar idea of classroom management is also presented by Rackel C. F who declares that the teachers, considered it was necessary, â€Å"to develop students’ sense of belonging to the school† (p. 1071) The author supports the opinion of the significance of a good school climate and tells that it might be precondition for facilitating positive youth development (Rackel C. F 1071). In order to attain to a good classroom atmosphere there is a need of growing positive relationship between students and teachers, motivation the students’ participation and clear rules to control classroom discipline (Rackel C. F 1072). In addition these above-mentioned views can be defined as a positive outlook as regards to improving the classroom management. Another point of view inside the subject of managing discipline is through active student involvement and through pragmatic Classroom management (Charles, C. M. 2007, p. 7). Discipline through raising student responsibility is also positively oriented approach for classroom management. The three principles that improve behaviour presented in the article â€Å"Self-assessment of understanding† are positivity, choice, and reflection (Charles, C. M. 12). There the author explains the principles meaning. He states that being positive means being a motivator. When students have opportunity to share their choices they can present themselves with a good behaviour. â€Å"Asking students questions that encourage them to reflect on their behaviour can help them to change behaviour† (Charles 14). Rebecca Giallo and Emma Little (2003, p. 22) from RMIT University Australia give their comments also on classroom behaviour management. They claim that confidence is one of the most important characteristic that influence teachers’ effectiveness in classroom management. Giallo and Little (2003, 22) based on the previous statement of Evans & Tribble accept that less confident teachers seem more vulnerable to stressful classrooms. They maintain the theory that the classroom stress is a reason for giving up a teacher’s career. In school the stress can be overcome through involving of drastic measures concerning managing a good discipline. One of the most popular strategy for solving behaviour problems is punishment. By reason of the popularity of the subject in the field of education, many experts have written articles and books as well as given lectures on discipline and punishment. Anne Catey based on Dreikur’s words considers that there is no need of using punishment in class. Based on Catey’s words kids need to have a chance they can share their ideas in the class (1). This is the best way to â€Å"smooth, productive functioning in schools† (Charles, C. M, 1999). Anne Catey from Cumberland High School gets an interview from several teachers in Illinois district about their discipline practices. She accepts the suggestion given by Lawrence as mentioning that, â€Å"very effective technique is a brief conference, either in the hallway or after class, with the misbehaving student† (Punishment, 1). Anne Catey has her own techniques for classroom management. She disagrees with Lawrence viewing about humour as one of the bad strategies for effective discipline and believes that using of humour can be effective if done without abasing the students (Punishment, 1). In this way she gives each one a bit of individual attention. When some of her students are a bit distracted on one task, talking to friends instead of reading Catey says, â€Å"Since I always assume the best of my students, I assume the noise I hear is students reading aloud or discussing their novels. However, it’s time to read silently now instead of reading aloud† (Punishment, 1). This sounds as a good strategy but personally I disclaim this thesis. This doesn’t work all the time. I am trying to be strict with my students and according to this the pupils have to observe the rules in my classes. That doesn’t mean that I admit the severe punishment but rarely the stern warnings. I agree with the following techniques used by Anne Catey (2001) to modify behaviour including giving â€Å"zeroes for incomplete, inappropriate, and/or missing work and taking points off at the end of a quarter for lack of participation and/or poor listening†. As expected, these methods are effective for some of the pupils but not for the others. Related to the above-mentioned topic it could be noticed some of the classroom discipline strategies utilized in Australia, China and Israel. On the basis of elaborated research in these countries some psychologists and school principals (Xing Qui, Shlomo Romi, 2005) conclude that Chinese teachers appear less punitive and aggressive than do those in Israel or Australia. Australian classrooms are presented as having least discussion and recognition and most punishment. In Australia (Lewis, 2005) as concerned to the study the teachers are characterized by two distinct discipline styles. The first of these is called â€Å"Coercive† discipline and comprises punishment and aggression (yelling in anger, sarcasm group punishments,  etc). The second style, comprising discussion, hints, recognition, involvement and Punishment, is called â€Å"Relationship based discipline† (Lewis 7). Coercive discipline according to the above-mentioned authors means the teacher’s behaviour is such as â€Å"shouting all the time, unfairly blaming students, picking on kids, and being rude, to stimulate student resistance and subsequent misbehaviour† (Lewis, Ramon 2). The importance of classroom discipline arises not only from students’ behaviour and learning as outlined above. It depends also on the role of the teacher. Sometimes it is obvious that teachers are not be able to manage students’ classroom discipline and it can result in stress. So,â€Å"classroom discipline is a cohesion of teacher stress† (Lewis 3). Chan (1998), reports on the stressors of over 400 teachers in Hong Kong, claims that student behaviour management rates as the second most significant factor stressing teachers. In the article Teachers’ Classroom discipline several strategies have been presented for improving classroom management. They are Punishing (move students’ seats, detention), Rewarding (rewards, praises), Involvement in decision-making (decides with the class what should happen to students who misbehave), Hinting, Discussion and Aggression. Another strategy for improving discipline in class is conducting questionnaires between the students. It is an appropriate approach for defining students’ opinion about behaviour problems. In each Chinese and Israeli school a random sample of classes at all year levels have been selected. As a research assistant administered questionnaires to these classes their teachers completed their questionnaires (Yakov J. Katz 7). In comparison to all of the mentioned countries the model in China is a little different in that students support use of all strategies except Aggression and Punishment. Based on the conducted research the only strategy to range within a country by more than 2 ranks is Punishment, which ranks as the most common strategy in Australia, and the fourth and fifth most commonly used strategy in Israel and China. The author, Xing Qui generalises that, â€Å"there is not more Punishment at the level 7-12. â€Å"Classroom discipline techniques showed that students in China, compared to those in Australia or Israel, report less usage of Punishment and Aggression and greater use of Discussion and the other positive strategies. At the end of their article â€Å"Teachers’ classroom discipline and Student Misbehaviour in Australia, China and Israel â€Å"(p. 14) the authors recommend that teachers need to work harder to gain quality relationships with difficult students. What I have drawn from reviewing literature so far is that teachers are able to use different techniques for enhancing classroom management in their profession. After making a thorough survey on the above-mentioned issue I would like calmly to express my position. It is harder for the teacher to keep the student focused on any frontal instruction. That’s why as with all classroom management practices, the teachers should adapt what they like to their classroom, taking into consideration the age, ethnicity, and personality of the class as a group, and of them as teachers. Much of the disruptive behaviour in the classroom can be alleviated before they become serious discipline problems. Such behaviours can be reduced by the teacher’s ability to employ effective organizational practices. These skills are individual for each teacher. The lecturer should become familiar with school policies concerning acceptable student behaviour and disciplinary procedures. Establishing rules to guide the behaviour of students is also important. Once these standards are set up the teachers have to stick to them. I agree with the authors who prefer involving the positive approach in behaviour management. But I also accept that some situations are more complicated than the others and in this case the teachers must take drastic measures against inappropriate students’ behaviour.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Down the River Essay

Edward Abbey’s essay Down the River reveals his strong belief that the existence of life revolves around nature itself. Abbey conveys these views through syntax, imagery, and his choice of structure. Abbey’s varying detail and syntax in the first half of the passage conveys an amazement toward nature. He states while gazing at the lion that there was a â€Å"mutual curiosity: [he] felt more wonder than fear†. His unexpected reaction to the mountain lion when they shared â€Å"mutual curiosity† implies that man is not alone in this journey towards knowledge, and there is a deep connection between man and nature. He varies the syntax from short to complex sentences with distinct differences in clauses. He states that later on they â€Å"see no mountain lions,† and the following sentence in a series presents all of the other wildlife that has been observed in great detail instead of the lion. He describes these plants and animals with enthusiasm and also calls Aravaipa â€Å"full of life† and extremely â€Å"beautiful†. The impression is that even though the lion that drew the explorer in is nowhere to be seen, there is still a vast amount of beauty in the desert. The structure is meant to contrast the two types of nature, urban nature and nature in Aravaipa. We see an immediate switch in tone when Abby says, â€Å"We stumble homeward over the stones, and through the anklebone-chilling water. † Abbey displays a hint of bitterness towards his home that is so bad even the journey to get there is torturous. He discusses the stars and how they seem to fade when he leaving the desert, as if the world he is used to has no stars, no beauty, no life. Abby then states that the memories of the beautiful desert are enough to keep him satisfied for days to survive the â€Å"urban life†. Nature is so rich in details and relationships and so wonderful and mysterious that it is impossible to completely understand it. This incomprehensibility can provide an unlimited source of learning that will eventually redeem us from a lifeless urban existence.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Changing Business Environment Globalisation

This study has highlighted the function and the approaches of Bharti Airtel. In this connection, this study has described the comparison between the approaches of Bharti Airtel with the other European telecom MNEs. This would be helpful to understand the European MNEs system. On the other hand, this study has provided and described the unique model, what is used by Bharti Airtel to emerge in the European MNEs. According to Botha, Kourie & Snyman (2014), it can be mentioned that Bahrti Airtel is a leading global telecommunications organisations. It operates in 20 countries of Asia and Africa. Bharti Airtel has collaboration with 16 global telecom organisations. As per the statement of Pettigrew (2013), it can be mentioned that recently Bharti Airtel has announced to launch the Europe India Gateway (EIG) cable system. This will be helpful to make a greater connection between two countries such as India and Europe. In addition, it can be added that Bharti Airtel has invested approximately $700 million. In this purpose, it can be mentioned that the EIG connection is very powerful and has a capacity of 3.84 terabits per second. Craig & Campbell (2012) mentioned that EIG stretches from Mumbai, India to London, United Kingdom. The EIG connection passes through the countries like UAE, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Egypt, Monaco, Gibraltar and then Portugal. Therefore, it will be highly benefitted to the Indian and the British to communicate with these countries. Hamilton & Webster (2015) mentioned that the cable connection has spreaded approximately by 15000 km. On the other hand, Wetherly & Otter (2014) argued that other European telecom organisations has aimed to develop a synchronized regulatory framework for the purpose of electronic communications network as well as electronic services through the entire European Union. Therefore, it can be clearly mentioned that European telecom organisations have tried to focus to the development of their services. In this purpose, they tried to improve their quality of signal and networks ( Although, Bharati Airtel has also aimed to improve their connectivity, this telecom organisation is willing to launch new and attractive service, so that the consumers get attracted with their services. As per the statement of Babatunde & Adebisi (2012), Bharti Airtel is the third largest mobile telecommunication within the world. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the business strategies of this telecom organisation. Base on the modern research, it can be noticed that people are looking for greater connectivity in turn of affordable prices. Moreover, the consumers are also willing to get attractive offers from the telecommunication. Therefore, it can be stated that if the telecom organisation offer the customers lucrative offers in turn of affordable prices, the revenue earning by the organisation would be increased. In this connection, Savrul, Incekara & Sener (2014) opined that Bharti Airtel has aimed to increase the market share profitability. This would accelerate the non mobile businesses. The vision of this telecom organisation is to enhance the lives of the consumers. This would effectively win the consumers preferences through exceptional experience. This study is helpful to discuss how Bharti Airtel can achieve their business objectives and make the business successful. Achieve through go-to-market excellence  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Increase the data penetration with intuitive pricing and innovation. Achieve through brilliant network experience  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the words of Botha, Kourie & Snyman (2014), it can be mentioned that the consumer frustration can be eliminated by increasing the quality of the service.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the other hand, consumer satisfaction level can be improved by increasing the granular planning communication.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bharti Airtel aimed to reduce the per unit cost MB by leveraging multiple technologies. Achieve with the valuable consumers  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Develop the technology by encouraging the consumption and up gradation  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Accelerate the business to business communication by improving the experience  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Reduce the entire cost structure of the call rates and other data packs. The organisation has been suffering from low call drops.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Bharti Airtel has focused to the network redesigning  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the point of Pettigrew (2013), it can be stated that the organisational culture of this telecom organisation is greater.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The management of the organisation always supervise the performance of the employees. This would be benefitted to increase the productivity of the organisation. Therefore, the customers will be satisfied. In this section, this study has tried to highlight the impact of the rise of emerging economy of Bharti Airtel for globalisation. According to Craig & Campbell (2012), it can be mentioned that Bharti Airtel acquired Zain Africa BV for $10.7 billion. Zain Africa is one of the top leading telecommunication organisations in Africa. In the year of 2010, the acquisition of Bharti Airtel was rules by the 70% stake in the Bangladesh’s Warid Telecom International. Secondly, Bharti Airtel has a significant global presence on the board of directors from 1997. In this connection, it can be added that British telecom has approximately 44% stake in the account of Bharti Airtel. This had effectively increased the collaboration between these two mentioned telecom organisations. Hamilton & Webster (2015) opined that globalisation had a positive impact on the business. Lastly, it can be added that SingTel holds a greater amount of stake in the account of Bharti Airtel. SingTel has invested app roximately US$ 292 million in Bharti Airtel. Therefore, it can be inferred that the financial performance would be increased. This also proved that globalisation could positively increase the organisation’s financial statement. This study is important to understand the business strategy of Bharti Airtel. This study has provided the comparison between the Bharti Airtel’s approach and the other European MNEs. On the other hand, this study has discussed the model, what Bharti Airtel has used in their business process. Moreover, the impact of this business approach for globalisation has also mentioned in this context. About Bharti Airtel - Strategy, Financial Snapshot, Structure, Awards. (2016). Retrieved 20 December 2016, from Babatunde, B. O., & Adebisi, A. O. (2012). Strategic environmental scanning and organization performance in a competitive business environment.  Economic Insights-Trends & Challenges,  64(1), 24-34. Botha, A., Kourie, D., & Snyman, R. (2014).  Coping with continuous change in the business environment: knowledge management and knowledge management technology. Elsevier. Craig, T., & Campbell, D. (2012).  Organisations and the business environment. Hamilton, L., & Webster, P. (2015).  The international business environment. Oxford University Press, USA. Pettigrew, A. (2013).  The Awakening Giant (Routledge Revivals): Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries. Routledge. Popescu, G. H. (2013). Macroeconomics, Effective Leadership, and the Global Business Environment.  Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, (2), 170-176. Savrul, M., Incekara, A., & Sener, S. (2014). The Potential of E-commerce for SMEs in a Globalizing Business Environment.  Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,  150, 35-45. Wetherly, P., & Otter, D. (2014).  The business environment: themes and issues in a globalizing world. Oxford University Press. .com strives towards providing exceptional essay help at an affordable price. Students, from various parts of Australia, prefer our servicers because we provide high-quality essay assistance at a pocket-friendly price. We receive numerous requests 'help me do my essay ' or 'can someone write my essay' from students every day. We efficiently fulfill those requests and provide students needed essay writing help art an affordable price.    Explain why firms’ marginal cost curves become upward sloping after a certain level of output has been reached. test While for the margina... Question: Discuss about the professional developers comprehend software?    Answer: I have been working in the USA Technologies for nine months now, and it ... Question: Describe about the Rethinking Oil Nationalism?    Answer: 1. The engineering discipline that I have chosen is Mechanical Engineering and I have se... Question: Explain about the Advertising for An integrated marketing communication perspective?    Answer: Introduction: Social media has become the part of... You are required to write a researched argument essay that convinces persuades the reader of your position / stance. This is an academic, researched and referenced do... 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Cybersecurity Threats and the Future of the Internet Research Paper

Cybersecurity Threats and the Future of the Internet - Research Paper Example This would make the medium of Internet and technology more effective and less vulnerable. Key words: Cyber threats, virtualization, network infiltration, cloud computing, SaaS. Internet has come of age through its overall journey. The progress has been a fast paced one and has completely brought about revolution in the digital world. The future promises much more. Virtualizations, Web 2.0, customization, Nano technology are few of the concepts that the medium of Internet offer (Livingston, 2010, 13). Objectives: The paper looks into the various forms of threats faced by modern day digital world, this is followed by the overall assessment of the Internet journey, the present day outlook of technology and the future prospect and potential developments associated. This accompanied by the various kinds of threats faced and the potential damages that can be caused. The last part of the paper contains the possible counter means and measures available which can make the world of Internet a more secure and reliable one to operate in. Concept of Cyber Security: The term cyber security pertains to enacting actions that are necessary to be taken into account for safe and better services and operations in this medium. The field of cyber technology is a double edged sword. It enables achieving what would not be possible in the manual methods over work of months and weeks, at the same time despite being lighting fast in its outlook, if it goes wrong, it can cause havoc. These threats come in various forms ranging from internal threats and variants to the external forces that are operating outside. They form an industry all together with billions of dollars being spent in the field and most of their activities being destructive and harmful to the common users in different ways. Since the cyber technology scope is part of almost every discipline, therefore every field is at stake and risk from it. Ranging from the communication means to scientific research, governmental organi zations all are operated on digital interface and as a result proper care and consideration must be given to the security factor. Broadly a complete set of entities exist that work as threat to the normal operational existence of computers and digital technologies. They come in form of viruses, Trojan horses, malwares, Spam and various other sources that are destructive in their nature and cause damages at different levels. Countering them requires comprehensive strategy formation at different levels. Government agencies are a direct target in many instances and recent findings have shown that 2012 saw increased percentage of damages being inflicted upon government organizations as a result of comprehensive attacks launched against the networks of government structures. Department of homeland Security is equally warned and has aimed at assessing the rates and percentages and the particular areas where these vulnerabilities are present and have attacked the networks (Powner, 2005). T hrough their findings they have established that over the past year or so, the rate of increase has been alarmingly high and stands in the figure of over 600 percent increase. FBI director dealing with the vulnerabilities and overall nature and structure of technology presented a very alarming outlook of technology and stated that considering that amount of increase and overall tendencies of attacks on the governmental orga

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Adoption and use of B2B enabling technologies in Australian companies Essay

Adoption and use of B2B enabling technologies in Australian companies - Essay Example In the B2B transactions, the volume of trade is higher and large amount of capital flows between the two organizations involved. The main cause to this is that in a supply chain, involving B2B trade, many sub components involving the purchase and use of raw material in a necessity as compared to a business consumer relationship which involves sale of a finished product to the consumer (Ho, 12). In Australia, there is lack of excellent mailing and telemarketing campaign lists and therefore people who are involved in direct marketing are frustrated. Direct mail is always wasted by being sent to the wrong person and on most occasions, in major companies in Australia, the contact person is the company’s chief executive officer and this executive will receive constantly a series of irrelevant mail that on most occasions are of no use to him or her. In Australia, the maintenance of data and its quality is poor and a large amount of junk mail reduces business campaigns, causing irrit ation among clients, therefore reducing the growth of direct marketing. This lack of choice and low standard of data production creates an opportunity for us to engage in provision of specialist database services and of higher quality, developed through extensive research. As an organization, we should focus on the quality of the database service to introduce in the Australian Market. For the success of the database product to be a reality, proper sales mechanisms needs to be enacted in order to realize the growth of our company the penetration of our services in the Australian Market. As our company grows, the need of developing complex sales strategies also arises, as this will effectively target the desired clients in the corporate structures. In addition, our company has to invest heavily in employing qualified and highly experienced sales personnel as this will facilitate professionalization of our marketing strategies to facilitate penetration of the Australian market. Investm ents in sales will be reflected by the successes our sales team will achieve in meeting the objectives of the organization as it will evolve into a significant player of database marketing in Australia and New Zealand and therefore making it the preferred choice of markers who engage in provision of high value services and products. As the National Sales Director, I am responsible for the performance of the sales team of the organization and because of this; I am preparing a report that will highlight the structure of my sales team that reflects the staff number, their geographic location, their roles and remuneration package. This report will highlight the distribution model that exists and the various costs and revenues expected. From this report, I will start by highlighting my salary, benefits and bonuses and thereafter highlight the salary scale of my staff, their expected benefits and bonuses. Thereafter, I will construct a budget basing on this analysis. In this report, I wil l provide my findings, based on research on the salary scale of sales staff in the Australian market and thereafter provide recommended salary structures of sales people putting into account various incentives our organization shall provide to motivate our staff. As the national sales director, my duty is to improve the sales of our database services to corporate organizations whose sole aim is to improve on the decisions made by these organizations. In marketing our databases services, the basic fundamental principles of marketing must be applied. These involves knowledge of the product, setting of competitive pricing system,

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Symbolism in the Short Story Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Symbolism in the Short Story - Essay Example For instance, a substantial part of the story is spent on describing the â€Å"stepping stones† in the river and the girl’s passage of it. Stepping stones and rivers have traditionally been symbolic of the journey of life. Rivers are also important as boundaries and crossing them often signifies passage from one world to another. The crossing of river Jordan into the Promised Land, for instance, is a crucial element of the Bible (Ferber, 2007, p. 170). The stepping stones, that are at first harder to cross and easy afterwards are also symbolic of the passage of life. This is the first hint that the speaker may be coming from a different land, or even a different plane of existence. The emphasis on the â€Å"glassy† sky is yet another symbolic clue. Glassy has connotations of an unnatural or artificial material, as it is man-made. It can also signify a certain deadness of the subject, an absence of expression as in the phrase â€Å"glassy eyes†. The absence of life, and the distance she feels from manmade objects further intensify the suggestion that the speaker is already dead. The narrator also mentions several objects of the landscape that she finds missing, suggesting a rather long absence. There was now a road that had replaced the pave and the pine tree she knew was gone.